As Jane Reichhold wrote in her Narrow Road to Renga, renga, "started out as a game for tired tanka writers." While
judges met to choose winners in the tanka competitions, poets would amuse themselves by passing around folded papers on which
were written several sets of 5-7-5 and 7-7 links with the names of the authors signed beside them. A poet would read the last
link, respond to it with one of his own, then pass the paper on. Sequences written in this verse-capping manner came
to be known as renga. Eventually the rules for renga became even more complex than those for tanka—so that a
judge (called a renga-master) often was appointed to enforce them.
On the surface, a renga looks simple. A 3-line introductory verse (called a hokku)
establishes the situation and usually
indicates both season and setting. The 2-line cap states a new thought or perception,
but it is connected in some way
to the previous 3-line link (not, however, to others preceding it). Links might be related
through obvious cause/effect or
comparison/contrast, or they might be less obvious, even surprising or puzzling. A renga
continues to alternate 3-line/2-line
verses throughout, never following a verse with one of the same length unless the participants
have so agreed.
A single renga can go on for hundreds, even thousands, of links. One containing 10,000
links has been reported, but about
100 seems a practical limit today, and that is seldom reached. Matsuo Basho, a 17th century
tanka/haiku master and arguably
the greatest poet Japan has produced, introduced a renga of 36 links, called a Kasen
renga, that is perhaps the most
popular with Western writers.
Renga do not tell stories in the usual sense. They connect thoughts and images suggesting
an overall picture, theme, idea
or emotion. A great part of the fun of renga is the surprise, the imaginative leaps and
tangents explored along the way.
Renga do, however, employ a set pattern. Traditionally, the title of a Kasen renga derives
from the opening link, the hokku.
The first 6 verses serve as an introduction, the middle section offers variations on themes
and other surprises, and the final
6 form a more closely linked set of images for the conclusion.
Classical renga have more guidelines than we can reasonably go into here, but we should
mention that traditionally, the moon
is mentioned in links 5, 14, and 29 of a Kasen renga, and flowers in links 17 and 34.
Other guidelines involve the use of
words depicting a season, the avoidance of certain subjects, and limitations on the use
of particular words. The word insect,
according to one rule, should be used only once per hundred verses.
Though each link must establish a relationship with the link preceding it, it should not
refer to links previous to that one.
Thus, there is seldom much repetition of images or subject matter beyond the required
moon and flower references. Those images,
however, serve to add cohesion to the whole.
Each link in a renga (except the first and last) should really be read twice: once with
the link preceding it and once with
the link following it. Each link is thus part of two small poems and may provide different
meanings or perceptions in each.
Renga is, first and foremost, a social activity, as are many forms in Japanese literature
and art, and as such is most often
written by two or more collaborators. There is, however, a solo renga, entirely
the work of one individual. Such renga
tend to be linked more logically, more sequentially, and so sometimes more closely resemble
a story. Since that isn't usually
the purpose of renga, it's best to have at least one partner to encourage variety.
Before beginning, collaborators traditionally set rules for that particular renga. They
might stipulate themes, subject matter,
kinds of links, length of the completed renga, etc. Some renga consist entirely of 2-line
links; some allow links of only
1 line, but those are less frequent.
Western writers (for better or worse) allow themselves more freedom than the classics
provide, though even traditional renga
varied from the norm at times. Western renga is still developing, so the differences could
© 1994, 2006 Larry Gross; based on
material from his book How to Write and Publish Poetry.